反渗透海水淡化技术现状和展望
Recent Development and Prospect of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Technology
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  海水淡化  反渗透膜  反渗透工艺  能量回收  环境影响
英文关键词:seawater desalination  reverse osmosis membrane, reverse osmosis technology  energy recovery  environmental impacts
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作者单位
高从堦,周勇,刘立芬 浙江工业大学 
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中文摘要:
      反渗透膜技术于20世纪60年代取得突破性进展,促使反渗透海水淡化在近50年间高速发展,淡化产能自20世纪90年代起激增。海水反渗透(SWRO)淡化已成为目前投资最省、成本最低的利用海水制备饮用水的过程。文中主要对海水反渗透淡化的发展状况进行介绍,如膜和组件的改进,关键设备高压泵和能量回收效率的提高,多种工艺过程的不断发展,包括预处理和后处理的新工艺,以及对环境的影响和相应对策等。反渗透技术的发展也推动了其他膜分离技术的进步,并扩展其应用领域。预计在不久的将来,膜技术在海水淡化和水再用,扩大和保护水资源,循环经济、清洁生产、改造传统产业、节能减排及提高人民生活水平等方面发挥的作用会越来越显著。
英文摘要:
      The reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology achieved breakthrough progress in the 1960s, resulting in fast development of seawater reverse osmosis desalination over the past half century. The world's desalination capacity has been rapidly increasing since 1990. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination has become a novel process for producing drinking water from seawater with the lowest investments and costs. This paper systematically reviews the development status of SWRO technology, such as improvement in membrane performance and related element structure, efficiency enhancement of high pressure pumps and energy recovery devices (ERD), unceasing development of technical processes including pretreatment and post-treatment, as well as impacts on the environment and related countermeasures. The development of RO technology has also promoted the progress of other membrane separation processes and extended their application fields. In the near future, it can be predicted that the membrane-based technologies will play an increasingly prominent role in seawater desalination and water reuse, augmentation and protection of water resources, cicular economy, clean production, traditional industry updating, energy conservation and emission reduction as well as enhancement of people's living standards.
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